On December 25, 2000, the Government of India started the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) to give connection to disconnected Habitations as part of a poverty reduction plan. The Government of India is working to establish high and uniform technical and managerial standards, as well as to facilitate policy creation and planning at the state level, in order to assure the long-term management of the rural road network.
According to the most recent numbers made public by state governments as part of a survey to identify Core Network as part of the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) initiative, around 1.67 lakh unconnected households are eligible for coverage under the programme. This includes building about 3.71 lakh kilometres of new roads and 3.68 lakh kilometres of upgraded highways.
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana(PMGSY) | UPSC IAS IPS IFS
The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) aims to connect eligible disconnected Habitations with adequate all-weather roads. In India, increased access to economic and social services leads to increased agricultural incomes and opportunities for productive employment; as a result, rural road connectivity is not only a crucial element of rural development but also a crucial component of ensuring sustainable poverty reduction.
Need for the Scheme
The primary goal of the PMGSY is to provide connectivity to previously unconnected rural areas via an all-weather road (with necessary culverts and cross-drainage structures that are operational throughout the year) in such a way that Habitations with a population of 1000 people and above are covered in three years (2000-2003). All Unconnected Habitations with a population of 500 people and above were to be covered by the end of the Tenth Plan Period (2007).
The goal for the Hill States (North-East, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal) and Desert Areas (as specified in the Desert Development Programme), as well as Tribal (Schedule V) areas, would be to link Habitations with a population of 250 people and above.
About the Scheme
The Government established the PMGSY defined what is considered a habitation according to the programme and not a revenue village or Panchayat. It is a population cluster that lives in a fixed location. Desam, Dhanis, Tolas, Majras, Hamlets, and other terms are frequently used to characterize the Habitations. An Unconnected Habitation is one with a population of a specific size that is located at least 500 metres (1.5 km of walking distance in the case of Hills) from an All-weather road or a connected Habitation. The population size of the habitation shall be determined using data from the 2001 Census.
The PMGSY would provide for the upgrading (to stipulated standards) of existing roads in districts where all eligible habitations of the specified population size (described above) have all-weather road connections. However, it should be highlighted that there are other goals of the programme than upgrading. Priority should be given to upgrading work to the Rural Core Network Through Routes, which carry the most traffic.
The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana goal is to offer effective all-weather road connection to disconnected Habitations. Even if the road is in poor condition, a habitation that previously had all-weather connectivity would not be eligible.
For all qualifying habitations in the chosen regions to have immediate access to necessary social and economic services, there must be at least one all-weather road connectivity, which is what is referred to as a "Core Network," which is the bare minimum network of roads (routes). It consists of Link Routes and Through Routes. Every road project undertaken under the PMGSY should be made sure to be a component of the Core Network. Prioritizing those roads that also service other Habitations should be done while keeping the connectivity goal in mind.
The qualifying Disconnected Habitations must be linked to neighboring Habitations already connected by an All-weather road or another existing All-weather road so that inhabitants may use services (educational, health, marketing, etc.) services not accessible in the unconnected habitation.
The PMGSY will only apply to rural regions. This program's scope does not cover urban roads. It would be referred to as "New Connectivity" to connect disconnected Habitations. Because the goal of PMGSY is, among other things, to enable farm-to-market access, new connectivity may entail "new construction" when the link to the habitation is absent, as well as "upgradation" where an intermediate link in its current state cannot serve as an all-weather road.
A road that can be travelled year-round is known as an all-weather road. This suggests that the roadbed is successfully drained (by suitable cross-drainage infrastructures such as culverts, small bridges, and causeways), but it does not entail that it should be paved, surfaced, or black-topped. Traffic disruptions of the permissible frequency and duration may be permitted.
There may be roads designated as fair-weather roads. As a result of the absence of Cross Drainage (CD) projects, they can only be crossed during the dry season. Converting such roads to all-weather roads by implementing CD improvements would be considered an upgrade. It should be emphasized that the supply of requisite CD works is an essential component of all PMGSY road construction.
When approved, upgrading usually entails constructing the base and surface courses of an existing road to desired technical requirements and/or enhancing the road's geometrics as necessary in line with traffic conditions.
The Indian Roads Congress (IRC guidelines)'s, as outlined in the Rural Roads Manual, shall be followed for building rural roads as part of the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana. For Hill Roads, the Hills Roads Manual's provisions may be applicable for issues not addressed in the Rural Roads Manual.
The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana 1 (PMGSY) is a fully-sponsored centrally-run programme. The Cess on High-Speed Diesel (HSD) has 0.75 cents per litre set aside for this programme. It was previously a 100% centrally-sponsored programme, but starting 2015–16, financing will be split 60:40 between the Center and the State.
- The PMGSY's primary goal is to connect the eligible disconnected Habitations with all-weather roads.
- No repairs are allowed on cement or black-topped roads, regardless of the terrible surface condition.
- The programme will benefit agriculture, health, education, urbanization, and job creation, among other things.
- According to the PMGSY, connectivity would only be possible on one road. No additional work can be done for habitation under the PMGSY if it is already connected to another by way of an all-weather road.
- Lack of funding explicitly allocated.
- Panchayati Raj institutions have limited engagement.
- Need for more ability to execute contracts.
- Less active working season and challenging terrain, particularly in hill states.
- A house that once had all-weather connectivity is ineligible, even if the road is currently in bad shape.
Effect on the Economy
In succeeding years, the financial allocation to states has been determined in accordance with the value of projects sanctioned to states. In the North-Eastern and Himalayan States, when projects sanctioned under the programme are concerned, the Union Government bears 90% of the project cost; in other states, the Union Government bears 60% of the cost.
Given that it facilitates access to social and economic amenities, rural road connectivity is a crucial element of rural development. Since certain roads have been shabby and damaged over time, upgrading previously constructed roads should also be considered. Additionally, it contributes to creating profitable job possibilities and higher agricultural revenues in India. In this context, the Government may think about working with foreign financial organisations to build essential rural infrastructure.