42 Important Questions on Buddhism and Jainism(UPSC IAS IFS IPS SSC)

In this article, I will take you through 42 Important Questions on Buddhism and Jainism. Buddhism is one of the major religion of the world Originated from the Indian sub-continent and has now spread to large parts of South-East Asia. Jainism does not have any single founder but is driven by a great-learned men known as Tirthankara. There were 23 Tirthankaras before Mahavira propagating the core philosophy across the world. Mahavira was the last and 24th Tirthankara believed to be incarcenated as god in the form of human. We will go through all the Important questions related to Buddhism and Jainism Philosophy that can be asked in your exams.

Buddhism and Jainism

Buddhism and Jainism

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1. How many Major Schools of Buddhism are there ?

Ans. There are basically four major schools :-

  • Hinayana Buddhism
  • Mahayana Buddhism
  • Theravada Buddhism
  • Vajrayana Buddhism

2. What is Tripitaka ?

Ans. Three Major Pitakas – Vinaya, Sutta and Abhidhamma combined to form Tripitaka.

3. Where was the First Buddhist Council held ?

Ans. It was held at Rajgir in around 483 BC.

4. Who was the Chairman of First Buddhist Council ?

Ans. Mahakasyapa

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5. What is ultimate aim of Hinayana ?

Ans. Nirvana

6. Which sect of Buddhism believe in Idol or Image worship ?

Ans. Mahayana

7. Who is called Samyaksambuddha ?

Ans. A bodhisattva who has accomplished the goal of complete enlightenment is called a Samyaksambuddha.

8. Which language was predominantly used by Mahayana Scholars ?

Ans. Sanskrit

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9. Who founded the Mahayana Sect of Buddhism ?

Ans. Emperor Kanishka of Kushana Dynasty believed to be the founder of Mahayana Sect.

10. Who was the predecessor of Buddha under Buddhism ?

Ans. Kassapa Buddha

11. Which kings were the contemporary of Buddha ?

Ans. King Bimbisara and King Ajatashatru

12. What are the Four major noble truths explained in Buddhism ?

Ans. Four major truths explained are:-

  • Dukkha: The truth of Suffering
  • Samudaya: The truth of the Origin of Suffering
  • Nirodha: The truth of the cessation of suffering.
  • Marga: The truth of the Path to the cessation of Suffering.

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13. Where was the third Buddhist Council held ?

Ans. It was held at Patliputra in around 250 BC.

14. Who was the Chairman of Second Buddhist Council ?

Ans. Sabakami

15. Who is the main deity of Vajrayana Buddhism ?

Ans. Tara(a lady)

16. Which is the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism ?

Ans. Pali

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17. Who is the Founder of Madhyamaka School of Mahayana Buddhism ?

Ans. Nagarjuna

18. Which new branch of Buddhism was propounded by Dr. B.R Ambedkar ?

Ans. Navayana buddhism

19. What are the different Symbols Listed under Jainism ?

Ans. Following are the mentioned Symbols:-

  • Swastika
  • Nandavarta
  • Bhadrasana
  • Shrivatsa
  • Darpana
  • Minayugala
  • Vardhamanaka
  • Kalasha

20. What are the two major Schools under Jainism ?

Ans. Two of the Major Schools are :-

  • Digambaras
  • Svetambaras

21. Which School of Jainism believes that women cannot be tirthankaras ?

Ans. Digambara School of Jainism

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22. What are the different Constraints Jains need to follow in their life ?

Ans, There are five constraints Jains need to follow:-

  • Ahimsa
  • Satya
  • Asteya
  • Aparigraha
  • Brahmacharya

23. What are the different Sects under Digambara School ?

Ans. There are two major sects under Digambara School:-

  • Mula Sangh
  • Bispanthi, Terapanthi and Taranpanthi

24. What are the different Sects under Svetambara School ?

Ans. There are three major sects under Svetambara School:-

  • Sthanakavasi
  • Murtipujaka
  • Terapanthi

25. What is Sallekhana ?

Ans. It is a religious practice of voluntarily fasting to death by gradually reducing the intake of food and liquids.

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26. What is Pratikraman ?

Ans. It is process during which Jains repent for their sins during their daily life.

27. How many Colors does Jain Flag has ?

Ans. There are five colors in Jain Flag:-

  • Red
  • Yellow
  • White
  • Green
  • Dark Blue

28. What is Siddhachakra called in Svetambara tradition ?

Ans. Navapada

29. What is Siddhachakra called in Digambara tradition ?

Ans. Navadevta

30. What are the major Jain places in India ?

Ans. Below are the major Jain Places in India :-

  • Dilwara Temple in Rajasthan
  • Palitana Temple in Gujarat
  • Girnar in Gujarat
  • Shikharji in Jharkhand
  • Shravanabelagola in Karnataka

31. What is the difference between Sthanakavasi Sect and Murtipujaka Sect ?

Ans. Following are the main differences:-

  • Sthanakavasi Sect believe in praying to Saints rather than to an idol whereas Murtipujaka Sect keep idols of the tirthankaras at their temples and worship them.
  • Sthanakavasi Saints wear a muhapatti near their mouth to cover it whereas Murtipujaka Saints do not wear a muhapatti.

32. What is the Similarity between Murtipujaka and Terapanthi ?

Ans. Both of them wear a muhapatti near their mouth to cover it.

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33. Which Sect did Bhadrabahu belonged to ?

Ans. Digambara Sect

34. Which Sect did Sthulabhadra belonged to ?

Ans. Svetambara Sect

35. Who’s preachings does Svetambaras follow ?

Ans. Parshvanatha

36. Which of the Tirthankaras were married as per the Svetambara believe ?

Ans. 23rd and 24th Tirthankara

37. Where did the Fourth Buddhist Council held ?

Ans. At Kundalvana, Kashmir

38. Who was the chairman of Fourth Buddhist Council ?

Ans. Vasumitra

39. Where did the Second Buddhist Council held ?

Ans. At Vaishali

40. Under who’s patronage Second Buddhist Council held ?

Ans. King Kalasoka

41. What is the main difference between Buddhism and Jainism Philosophy ?

Ans. Buddhism does not believe in the existence of Soul(Atman) whereas Soul is the core philosophy of Jainism.

42. What is the similarity between Jainism and Buddhism Philosophy ?

Ans. Both of them rejected the authority of Vedas. More on Buddhism and Jainism.

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