In this article, I will take you through 20 Most Frequently Asked questions about Mariana Trench. It is a crescent shaped deepest oceanic trench located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Mariana Islands. From past few decades, lot of expeditions went and tried to measure the exact depth. It was first sounded during the challenger expedition in 1875 using a weighted rope. Later on a series of researchers also went to understand the marine biology and ecology in that region. We will see some of the most frequently asked questions related to this trench in below section.
20 Most Frequently Asked Questions About Mariana Trench
1. What is Mariana Trench ?
Ans. It is a deepest Oceanic trench which is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 kilometres east of the Mariana Islands.
2. How deep is the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. It is 11,034 meters (36,201 feet) deep.
3. Where is the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. It is located in the floor of the western North Pacific Ocean.
4. Has anyone been to the bottom of the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. On 23 January 1960, two explorers, US navy lieutenant Don Walsh and Swiss engineer Jacques Piccard, became the first people to dive 11km (seven miles) to the bottom of the Mariana Trench.
5. How was the Mariana Trench formed ?
Ans. The Mariana Trench was formed through a process called subduction. Earth's crust is made up of comparably thin plates that “float” on the molten rock of the planet's mantle. This movement creates a trench where the descending oceanic plate drags down the edge of the overriding plate.
6. What lives in the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. The organisms discovered in the Mariana Trench include bacteria, crustaceans, sea cucumbers, octopuses and fishes.
7. What type of Plate boundary is the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. It is a convergent boundary between two oceanic plates.
8. Is the Mariana trench the deepest part of the ocean ?
9. How long is the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. It is 2,500 kilometers long.
10. How wide is the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. It is 70 kilometers wide.
11. Who found Monothalamea at the bottom of the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. It was found by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface.
12. What Ocean is the Mariana Trench in ?
Ans. Pacific Ocean
13. How Cold is the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. The temperature at the bottom is about 1 to 4 °C (34 to 39 °F).
14. Who discovered the Mariana Trench ?
Ans. It was first pinpointed in 1951 by the British Survey ship Challenger II. Known since as Challenger Deep.
15. How was the Mariana Trench discovered ?
Ans. In 1875, the trench was discovered by the HMS Challenger using recently invented sounding equipment during a global circumnavigation. In 1951, the trench was sounded again by HMS Challenger II. More on wikipedia.
16. Which is the first underwater vehicle operated autonomously at the extreme depths of the Mariana Trench ?
17. What is Deep-Sea Gigantism ?
Ans. It is a process where species grow larger than their shallow-water relatives.
18. Which banned chemical toxin was found in the organisms of Mariana Trench ?
Ans. PCB(Polychlorinated biphenyls)
19. When did Mariana Trench was established as a US National Monument ?
Ans. It was established as a US National Monument in the year 2009.
20. What is the water pressure at the bottom of the Trench ?
Ans. At the bottom, water column exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), more than 1,071 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level.