With the goal of fully developing horticulture in the nation, the Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) was established from 2014 forward for execution throughout the 12th Plan. The centrally sponsored programme aims to promote the sector's overall development by focusing on fruits, vegetables, root and tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, fragrant plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa, and bamboo.
Fruits, vegetables, tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants, flowers, foliage, and plantation crops, including cocoa, bamboo, argon, cashew, and cashew nuts, are all part of India's extensive and diverse horticultural base. The horticulture industry propels the rural economy forward while ensuring the public's access to food and nutrition.
Need for the Scheme
The implementation of MIDH anticipates generating a healthy growth rate of 7.2% in the horticulture industry during the 12th Plan and creating skilled and unskilled job opportunities in rural and urban regions. MIDH provides the essential impetus to the horticulture sector. All Indian States and Union Territories (UTs) are included in the programme. HMNEH will encompass all of the North Eastern States, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand under the Himalayan area. In contrast, NHM will concentrate on 18 States and UTs. With an emphasis on small and marginal farmers, these missions target the whole spectrum of horticulture from production to consumption through backward and forward linkages.
Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture | UPSC IAS IPS IFS
The goals of MIDH include the production of high-quality seeds and planting materials, production enhancement through productivity improvement strategies, and support for the development of infrastructure to minimize post-harvest losses. Further, it is to develop an integrated, energy-efficient cold chain infrastructure for fresh horticulture products, popularization of identified new technologies, tools, and techniques for commercialization and adoption, following the completion of technology and need assessments, and promotion of identified new technologies, tools, and strategies for adoption.
In addition to bringing about 11 lakh hectares under new horticultural crops, the Mission will cover approximately 4.5 lakh hectares under rejuvenation of senile plantations and 0.18 lakh hectares under protected cultivation and establish about 19,000 post-harvest management and market infrastructure.
The MIDH integrated ongoing schemes of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation on horticulture development as sub-schemes, namely National Horticulture Mission (NHM), Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States (HMNEH), National Horticulture Board (NHB), National Bamboo Mission (NBM), Coconut Development Board (CDB), and Central Institute for Horticulture (CIH), Nagaland.
The State Horticulture Missions carry out the NHM, which aims to boost the horticulture industry output. The State Horticulture Missions of the Northeastern and Himalayan States implement NHB, while HMNEH is responsible for carrying out the different MIDH programmes at the state and UT levels.
The NHB's primary goals are to enhance the industry's integrated growth and to aid in organizing, maintaining, and processing fruit and vegetable output. It involves creating high-tech commercial horticulture in designated belts, filling such regions with horticultural activity, and turning them into horticultural development centres.
With an emphasis on increasing productivity and product diversity, CDB targets the integrated development of coconut farming and industry in the nation. By implementing an area-based, regionally distinct approach, NBM hopes to promote the overall expansion of the bamboo industry. Other goals include expanding the area under bamboo cultivation and selling bamboo and bamboo-based handicrafts.
The Mission's organizational structure is divided into four levels; the National Level has a General Council (GC) presided over by the Union Agriculture Minister. The GC will serve as the governing body for the Mission, providing general direction and leadership as well as monitoring and reviewing its performance.
Action Plans of SHMs and NLAs shall be approved by the Executive Committee (EC), which is presided over by the Secretary of Agriculture & Cooperation (DAC). The EC has the authority to reassign funds among States and components and approve projects per authorized subsidy rules. The DAC's Horticulture Division will oversee the NHM, HMNEH, NBM, and CIH Schemes and give GC/EC/EMC the support they need.
The Agricultural Production Commissioner or the Principal Secretary of Horticulture/ Agriculture/ Environment & Forests, who oversees the execution of the programmes of the various States, serves as the chairman of the State Level Executive Committee(s). The SLEC has a representative that the central government chooses. In order to carry out the Mission's tasks, it organises baseline surveys and feasibility studies for various areas/clusters. It receives funding from the National Mission Authority, State Government, and other sources.
Additionally, through farmers, societies, grower associations, self-help groups, state institutions, and other similar organisations, it oversees and aids in the implementation of the states' planned actions. Furthermore, the SLEC must post monthly progress reports by the fifth of each month on the Mission's websites (www.nhm.nic.in) (www.tmnehs.gov.in) and provide them to the DAC (www.nbm.nic.in). Progress reports are uploaded at both the district and state levels.
The District Mission Committee (DMC) will be in charge of carrying out the Mission's goals for project development, execution, and monitoring at the district level. The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the District Rural Development Agency or the Zila Parishad may serve as the DMC's leader.
District Planning Committee and Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) will be involved in implementing the programme commensurate with their expertise and available infrastructure.
During 2019-20, the country recorded its highest-ever horticulture production of 320.77 million tonnes. It also expanded an additional area of 1.10 lakh ha. of identified horticulture crops, established 77 nurseries and area rejuvenation.
- Increasing agriculture productivity and crop quality.
- Increase the horticultural industry's self-sufficiency in India.
- Assist in realizing the sustainable development goals of gender equality, no poverty, and a world without hunger.
- High loss upon harvest.
- Gaps in Post-Harvest Management.
- Building blocks for the supply chain
Effect on the Economy
In all states, to save those in the North East and the Himalayas, the Government of India (GOI) provides 60% of the overall funding for development programmes under MIDH, with the State Governments providing the remaining 40%. 90% of the budget comes from the Government of India for the North Eastern and the Himalayan States.
The "Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture" has received an increased budget from the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare of Rs. 2250 Crore for the fiscal year 2021–2022. (MIDH).
In addition to making India self-sufficient in the horticulture industry, the MIDH programme promotes the nation to reach its sustainable development goals, such as ending world hunger, promoting gender equality, and eliminating poverty.
There is a tremendous opportunity to boost Indian horticulture production, which is necessary to satisfy the nation's anticipated 650 million MT fruit and vegetable demand by 2050. Agri Infra Fund lending drives, the emphasis on producing planting materials, cluster development programmes, the creation and promotion of FPOs (Farmers Producer Organisations), and other recent measures are all positive moves forward.