Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) is a government of India flagship programme that was introduced in 2001 to ensure the universalization of elementary education (UEE). The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) received legal support via constitutional backing, when Article 21 A of the Indian Constitution recognized free and compulsory education for children ages 6 to 14 to be a fundamental right. SSA makes an effort to promptly uphold the demands of this fundamental right. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Government of India (GOI), established the SSA Program in 2000–2001.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA) - Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE)
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AIM of the Scheme
- Opening new schools in areas with no existing educational facilities.
- Upgrade the infrastructure of older schools by constructing more classrooms, toilets, and drinking water sources.
b) Human Resources
- Adding more teachers,
- Improving the professional development of current teachers, developing teaching-learning resources, and bolstering the academic support network at the cluster, block, and district levels.
c) Quality Enhancement
- The education of girls and children with special needs is given a specific focus. The primary level of education is of high quality and includes life skills to reduce the digital divide and promote computer literacy.
Objective of the scheme
- To open brand-new schools in places without existing ones.
- To offer alternatives to traditional educational facilities.
- To upgrade the current system of education
- To construct new schools
- Increasing the number of toilets, water fountains, and classrooms in schools
- To continue providing grants for improving schools
- To increase the number of teachers in schools where there is a scarcity of teachers.
- Free textbooks and uniforms for kids.
- To improve and reinforce the abilities of the current teachers in the schools through Extensive Training, the development of materials for teachers' learning through the maintenance of grants and the cluster, block, and district levels of the academic support network are being improved.
- To provide children with excellent education and life skills.
- Supporting the education of girls as well as children with special needs or who are differently abled (the larger goal is to transform the position of women). According to the Ministry of Human Resources and Development, the SSA seeks to give children who are members of the following categories equal educational opportunities: SC, ST, Muslim Minority, Landless Agricultural Laborers, etc.
- By addressing the educational requirements of historically underprivileged communities, SSA also attempts to overcome the digital divide by offering computer lessons to children.
- The three main areas of focus for the Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) programme are universal access, universal enrollment, and universal retention.
Convergence of Different Ministries & Schemes
Convergence of initiatives and programmes from different Ministries and Departments is a fundamental tenet of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan's implementation to meet its goal. The following schemes and programmes from different ministries and departments are noted to intersect with the SSA:-
- Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoH&FW): The Model Cluster School receives services from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoH&FW), which also regularly conducts general health examinations in government hospitals, referral hospitals, or PHCs.
- Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD): Expand the midday meal programme to all schools. Streamline admissions for the right age group and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).
- Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD): The Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS)-based benefits are extended to the enrolled school children by the Ministry of Women & Child Development (MWCD).
- DST, GOI: Offer geospatial tools for grassroots social mapping exercises and school mapping.
- Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoSJ& E and MOTA): Convergence of funding to construct residential facilities between the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment and the Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoSJ& E and MOTA).
- State PWDs: Designed school structures in accordance with specifications.
The following table lists the projects started under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan:-
|Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat||Aim – to raise class I and class II students' levels of math proficiency as well as their reading and writing abilities.
It uses a two-track strategy:
|Shagun Portal||In order to track the development of SSA, it was introduced in 2017.|
|Shaala – Siddhi||The School Standard Evaluation Program (Shaala-Siddhi) is a programme that helps the SSA objectives be accomplished.|
|Swachh Vidyalaya||National Campaign – Clean India: Clean Schools
Aim: To provide functional and well-maintained water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities in every Indian school.
a) Monitoring Structure
The monitoring system for this program's implementation is multi-layered, commencing with monitoring at the central level and moving down to monitoring at the village level.
b) District-Level Functioning Structure
District Project Coordinators (DPCs) are in charge of the SSA implementation at the district level, working in conjunction with BRCs and CRCs. The district's District Education Officers (DEOs) operate in a matrix mode, with each DEO in charge of one or more subject areas.
The task is handled by Block Education Officers (BEO) at the block or cluster level. The State Government appoints a Local Authority in accordance with the RTE Act. The local elected body in question as well as the local government make up the local authority. The monitoring is handled by the Village Education Committee at the village level and the School Management Committee at the school level. Based on the needs of the school, the School Management Committee creates the School Development Plan.
This plan is sent down to the Block level, where the BEO prioritizes the requirements in consultation with the BRPs and CRPs before sending them to the District Project Officer. Based on the BEOs' suggestions, the District Project Officer creates the Annual Work Plan and Budget (AWP&B). The AWP&B is evaluated by the combined national and state committees, the plans are authorized and the funds are distributed in accordance with the demand, requirements, and availability of the available resources in different geographic locations.
c) Institutional Arrangement at District Level
Different committees are formed at various levels in the District, namely, the District, Block, Local Authority, and School levels, in accordance with the focus placed on community-based monitoring of the plan in the RTE Act, 2009. The creation of rules for the creation of committees at various levels is a requirement of state governments.
Below is a list of the members of the various committees at various levels that the plan envisions, together with information on the relevant administrative heads.
The following table shows Institutional Arrangement at District Level:-
|Name of the
|Administrative Head||Constituents of the Committee|
|District Level Committee||District Education Officer
in the role of District Project Coordinator
|· Local / Public Representatives (numbers as prescribed by State Government / UT)|
|Local Administrative apparatus||· Elected Local Body (Municipal Body /
Panchayats) as prescribed by the respective State Government
School Management Committee
|· 75% of the members would be parents or guardians of children
· 25% of members would be
- 1/3rd Members would be of elected by local representatives
- 1/3rd would be school teachers
- 1/3rd local academics or school children
Financial Resources & Funds Flow
The Central and State/UT Governments are partners in the SSA programme. The finance are provided after the Project Approval Board (PAB) approves the plan based on the committee's suggestion that was set up by the state and national missions. Based on the State Government's pledge to Contribute, the Central Government releases the cash. The Ministry has published a document that details the financial management and plan procedure. Prior to the release of the following instalment or upon fund utilization, whichever occurs first, the State Society shall submit the Utilisation Certificate (UC) to the national mission. Prior to the release of the second instalment for the next year, the UC for the Second Instalment must be submitted.
District Level Implementation
The three tiers of the scheme's implementation District, Block, and Village levels are carried out by the corresponding Committees.
1) District Collector
The District Collector calls the meetings to track the status and advancement of the Scheme in the District as the Member-Secretary of the District Development Coordination and Monitoring Committee (Disha). The roles & responsibilities of District Collector are :-
a) Planning: Setting priorities, compiling, and consolidating the district plans with the assistance of the district project coordinator.
b) Coordination: Coordinating with other departments to ensure that the SSA is implemented uniformly. Coordinating the program's implementation and oversight with the State Implementing Society.
c) Monitoring: Utilizing the Unified District Information System for Education (U-DISE) to keep track of the program's execution, reviewing the programme in accordance with the prepared District Plan, track the use of the money and convening the Disha meetings with proper notice to the members, including MPs, MLAs, and other representatives, in accordance with Disha norms, at least once every quarter. The following is a tentative timetable for the quarterly meetings:-
- April: Planning and Coordination Meeting, when all financial approvals from the federal, state, and local governments' budgets could be presented and implementation problems could be fixed for efficient coordination. At this meeting, specific implementation deadlines and goals could be set.
- July: First Implementation Review of the programmes in accordance with the timetable and implementation plan decided upon at the first meeting.
- October: Second Implementation Review of Programs in October to determine obstacles to on-time project completion.
- February: Final evaluation of the year's progress is done in February.
2) The District Project Coordinator
The District Project Coordinator serves as the administrative head of the District Level Committee, which was established to design, review, and oversee the execution of the programme and to provide regular updates to the District Collector on its status and development.
3) Block Education Officer
At the Block level, BEO is in charge of the project and answers to the District Project Coordinator. The BRC & CRCs, which are staffed by Block Resource Persons and Cluster Resource Persons, respectively, are how the BEO operates. A local Authority, which may be a Municipal Body or a Panchayat, is chosen by the state government to serve as the block-level committee that oversees progress.
A nation is seen as having a better standard of living if its basic education is stronger and more comprehensive. In a developing nation like India, primary education must therefore be improved. To improve the education standard in the country the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was introduced. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was Mahatma Gandhi's historical aspiration. If the dedication of Gram Panchayats, Mahilamandals, Yuva Sangha, volunteer organisations, the responsibility of politicians, and the honesty of administrators are demonstrated, the Sarva Shiksha Yojana can be successful and would show the positive results in longer run.