To double the income of the nation's fish farmers and fishermen, the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) was introduced in September 2020. It is a component of the Atmanirbhar Bharat scheme and focuses on the sustainable development of the Indian fisheries industry. To establish fisheries clusters, the plan used a "cluster or area-based approach." The programme focuses on endeavors that have the potential to create jobs, such as growing seaweed and ornamental fish. The importance of breeding for quality brood, seed & feed, and species diversification is also emphasized.
Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana | UPSC IAS IPS IFS
The government hopes to quadruple the incomes of fishermen and fish growers, cut post-harvest losses from 20–25% to 10%, and create an additional 55 lakh direct and indirect job possibilities with the implementation of the scheme.
The Central Sector Scheme (CS) and the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) are the two distinct components of the umbrella programme known as the PMMSY. Under the following three general headings, the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) Component is further divided into beneficiary- and non-beneficiary-oriented sub-components/activities:-
- Enhancement of Production and Productivity
- Infrastructure and Post-harvest Management
- Fisheries Management and Regulatory Framework
A total anticipated investment of Rs. 20,050 crores has been approved for the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada, of which the Central part is worth Rs. 9407 crore, the State portion is worth Rs. 4880 crore, and the Beneficiaries' contribution is worth Rs. 5763 crore. From FY 2020–21 to FY 2024–25, PMMSY will be implemented across all States and Union Territories for a total of 5 (five) years.
Important pointers about the scheme
a) ‘Post-harvest infrastructure management from "catch to consumer" - Along with the expansion of fisheries production, a strong emphasis is placed on the calibre of post-harvest management.
b) Private Sector Participation - The development of business models, promotion of ease of doing business, and new concepts in the industry will all be addressed together with the promotion of start-ups, incubators, etc. in the fisheries sector.
c) Cluster-based and area-based approaches The following will be used to support its identification of possible fisheries development clusters:
- Needed interventions
- Links that go forward and backwards
- Infrastructure, high-quality brood, seed, and feed facilities, and networks for processing and marketing
d) Linking and combining existing programmes - The PM Matsya Sampada Yojana will be supported by the following programs, among others, to amplify its effects:-
- Ministry of Food Processing Industries' PM Kisan Sampada Yojana
- Ministry of Rural Development's National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM).
- Ministry of Rural Development's Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).
- Ministry of Agriculture's Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).
- Ministry of Shipping’s Sagarmala Project
e) Institutional Support for a Mission-Mode Implementation - District- and sub-district-level units will be established under the PMMSY, along with:-
- State Programming Units
- District Programming Units
- Sub-district Programme Units
f) Allocations for new and emerging technologies for effective use of land and water resources:-
- Recirculatory Aquaculture Systems
- Aquaponics Cage Cultivation
g) Increasing Exports to Rs. 1 lakh crore by 2024–2025 – The programme will concentrate on species diversity, value addition, end-to-end traceability, and brand development in close cooperation with The Marine Products Exports Development Authority (MPEDA).
h) Through the use of region-specific strategic development planning, the development of the fisheries sector is prioritized in the J&K, Ladakh, Islands, Northeast, and aspirational Districts.
i) The promotion of aquaculture shall be carried out, particularly in the saline and alkaline zones of Northern India.
j) Aquatic health management - An integrated laboratory network will be used to support efforts to address disease, antibiotic, and residue issues.
k) E-marketing and E-trading of fish will be developed, along with wholesale and retail fish markets, to build a nationwide platform for the distribution of affordable and high-quality fish.
Aim and Objectives
The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana's (PMMSY) aims and objectives are:-
- Enhancing fish output and productivity through growth, intensification, diversification, and productive use of land and water. Harnessing the potential of fisheries in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive, and equitable manner.
- Improving quality and modernizing and enhancing the value chain post-harvest management.
- Increasing the incomes of fish farmers and fishermen by twofold and creating jobs.
- Increasing contribution to GVA and exports from agriculture.
- Fish growers and fishermen should have social, physical, and financial stability.
- Adequate management and regulatory framework for fisheries
The Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana(PMMSY) will be put into action using the following funding scheme:-
a) Central Sector Scheme: The central government will cover all programme costs. Additionally, central assistance will be up to 40% of the project cost for the general category and 60% for the SC/ST/women category in cases of direct beneficiary-oriented activities carried out by central government agencies like the NFDB.
|50:50 Centre and General States
|North East and the Himalayan States
|80:20 Centre and NE & Himalayan States
|100% as Centre share for UTs (with legislature and without legislature)
b) Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) - If CSS components and subcomponents are implemented by states or UTs, the centre and state will split the total cost.
Beneficiaries of the Scheme
The intended beneficiaries under the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana are:-
- Fish farmers
- Fish workers and Fish vendors
- Fisheries Development corporations
- Self Help Groups (SHGs)/Joint Liability Groups (JLGs) in fisheries sector
- Fisheries cooperatives
- Fisheries Federations
- Entrepreneurs and private firms
- Fish Farmers Producer Organizations/Companies (FFPOs/Cs)
- SCs/STs/Women/Differently abled persons
- State Governments/UTs and their entities including
- State Fisheries Development Boards (SFDB)
- Central Government and its entities
End Implementing Agencies
The PMMSY would be implemented through the following agencies:-
- Central Government and its entities including National Fisheries Development Board
- State/UT Governments and their entities
- State Fisheries Development Boards
- Any other End Implementing Agencies as decided by the Department of Fisheries
The PMMSY is being implemented as an umbrella scheme because it has the Central Sector and Centrally-sponsored Scheme Components. To focus on the overall development of the fishing industry, the scheme is anticipated to intervene at nearly all significant points along the fisheries value chain.
The implementation is done in cooperation with the states/union territories in order to carry out the plan effectively and obtain the best results. The central government covers the entire cost in some crucial sectors of national importance, however, financing for the system varies by component and region.
The primary goal of Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana(PMMSY) is to increase fish output, but it is crucial to achieve quality, sustainability, standards, and traceability in the fisheries industry. To accomplish its goals, the programme promotes private participation and the growth of an entrepreneurial culture in the fishing industry.
The programme will also explore appropriate synergies and connections with other programmes run by the federal government and state governments. The "Sagarmala Project" of the Ministry of Shipping, PMKSY of the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, MGNREGS and the National Rural Livelihoods Mission of the Department of Rural Development, Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) and other programmes under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare are a few of the identified linkage schemes.
Progress so far
- Although Covid-19 has had a negative influence on the sector over the past two years, the sector has been able to recover thanks to the programme by using a number of systematic approaches. Fisheries have experienced an outstanding 3% rise over the past two years, from 2019–20 to 2021–2022. A record-breaking 141.64 lakh tonnes of fish were produced in 2019–20, and that number is expected to rise to 161.87 lakh tonnes (provisional) in 2021–22.
- Similar to imports, exports reached an all-time high of 13.64 lakh tonnes valued at Rs 57,587 crores (USD 7.76 bn), with exports of shrimp accounting for the majority of this total. We currently export to 123 different nations.
- Twenty integrated reservoir development projects that involved the installation of 20,622 cages were carried out to advance inland fisheries. A functional transposition of 3117 RAS units and 2693 bio-floc units has been made in order to adapt driving technology to increase production. Initiatives to develop saline and alkaline areas have covered around 1600 acres of land.
- 276 deep-sea fishing vessels have been authorized and the procurement process has started in order to develop marine fisheries. 10 marine hatcheries have been authorized to provide farmers with high-quality seed. Almost 1556 cages that will be installed in the sea have already received approval.
- A total of 6.77 lakh farmers have been covered for nutritional and livelihood support during lean or ban periods, in addition to the 47 lakh farmers who have received insurance coverage from 22 states and 7 UTs thus far.
- Additionally, the government has made the Kisan Loans Card (KCC) available to fishermen, fish farmers, self-help groups (SHGs), joint liability groups, women groups, to assist in meeting the sector's needs for working capital and short-term credit. 6,35,783 applications had been submitted as of January 2022, and Rs 1,04,179 Lakh had been approved.
- 19 bids for fishing harbors and fish landing facilities with a total of Rs. 912.03 crores have so far been authorized in an effort to improve the fisheries infrastructure and increase fish production. By the end of 2024–2025, it is anticipated that 68 lakh jobs will be created through the PMMSY.
- The majority of India's overall fish production used to come from the ocean. However, with the use of science-based methods and technology in 2019, inland fisheries produced 74% of fish production, with the remaining 26% coming from sea fisheries.
- This programme will promote aquaculture, particularly in the saline and alkaline regions of northern India. Aquatic health management is another major issue, with emphasis placed on addressing disease, antibiotic, and residue issues, all of which will be supported by an integrated laboratory network.
From Rs. 46,589 crores (US$ 6.37 billion) in FY19, the government has set the goal to quadruple its fishery export revenues to Rs. 100,000 crores (US$ 13.68 billion) by FY25. To ensure the PMMSY program's success, the government is making tremendous efforts. The government increased funding for the Department of Fisheries by 34% to Rs. 1,220.84 crore (US$ 166.97 million) in the Union Budget 2021–22. Amounts worth Rs. 1,000 crore (US$ 136.77 million) of the total allocation were given to the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana(PMMSY) scheme for FY22, a 43% increase. The advancement of fishermen's livelihood in the nation would be furthered by this.
To increase fish production and quality, the government has assisted in the development of Fish Brood Banks and Aquatic Disease Referral Laboratories in a few states, including Bihar, by ensuring that fish farmers have access to high-quality, reasonably priced fish seed and by addressing the need for disease detection and water and soil testing.
In order to better facilitate the development of the fisheries sector as well as its auxiliary industries and help integrate fishermen into the mainstream industry making them economically secure and stable the government is also concentrating on adopting technologies like the IoT to integrate with the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana(PMMSY).