In this article, we will go through the important points on Shimla Agreement 1972. We will also try to understand the Background which led to this Agreement. This is an Important topic for all the Competitive Exams hence we will be covering all the relevant points here.
What is Shimla Agreement
It is an agreement between India and Pakistan which was signed after Bangladesh War, 1971. It was signed between Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistan Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on July 2nd, 1972 to liberate East Pakistan and form a new country called Bangladesh.
Just before the Agreement, India and Pakistan fought a war in 1971 which led to the Liberation and creation of Bangladesh from Pakistan. An agreement was signed at Shimla in 1972 to end the conflict in the region. Hence the name Shimla Agreement, 1972.
Shimla Agreement, 1972
It is mutual agreement between India and Pakistan post the end of Bangladesh Liberation War to find a peaceful resolution of all the past issues and work on a long standing relationships. More on Shimla Agreement, 1972.
India-Pakistan War, 1971
As per the relevant sources, this war started with the Military confrontation between India's Mitro bahini forces and Pakistan on 3rd Dec, 1971 which continued till the Fall of Dacca on 16th Dec, 1971. The War began with Pakistan launching Operation Chengiz Khan's preemptive Aerial Strikes on 11 Indian Air Stations leading to hostilities between the two countries. This marked the entry of India into Bangladesh Liberation War. India, Pakistan clashed simultaneously on both Eastern and Western Front. Later on, Pakistan surrendered on 16th Dec, 1971 that led to the formation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan.
Consequences of this War
- Displacement of Millions of People from War torn East Pakistan.
- Movement of 10 Million Refugees to India.
- War put an extra Economic Burden on both the Countries which ultimately created huge Financial Crisis.
- Both sides lost significant number of Soldiers(8000 Pakistanis and 3000 Indian Soldiers Killed). Many more got wounded.
- Around 90,000 Pakistan's Prisoners of Wars(PoW) taken by India.
- Operation Trident by India lead the Destruction of Karachi Port.
- Pakistan lost half of its population and a significant portion of its Army.
- Increase in Illegal Migrants to the North Eastern States of India.
Aftermath of India-Pakistan, 1971 War
- Establishment of Indian Dominance in the Asian Subcontinent Region.
- Acceptance of new Balance of Power by US.
- Building of Long Standing Relationship between India and USSR(now Russia).
- India received further support from UK and France.
- Beginning of new relations between India and Iran.
- Helped India in Surprise Nuclear Test done in 1974.
- Settlement of displaced Bangladeshi Peoples.
- War exposed the shortcoming's of Pakistan declared strategic doctrine.
- Exposed both China and US Inability to help and support Pakistan during War.
- Launch of Clandestine development of Nuclear Weapons by Pakistan to protect the country from any foreign Invasion.
- Heavy Reconstruction and Reorganisation of Pakistan Military.
- Increase Investment in Pakistan Navy.
Outcome of Shimla Agreement,1972
- Recognition of Line of Control(LoC) between India and Pakistan.
- Charter of United Nations shall govern the relation between two countries.
- Return of 90,000 Prisoners of War(PoWs) to Pakistan.
- Return of Occupied Land by India to Pakistan.
- Withdrawal of forces from the International Boundary.
- Peaceful talks on Kashmir Issue.
- Resume communications, postal, telegraphic, sea, land including border posts, and air links including overflights.
- Resume Trade and Cooperation in Economic and Other Agreed Fields.
- Promote Travel Facilities for the Nationals of Other Countries.
- Respect each other’s national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality.
In this article, we have seen the important points related to Shimla Agreement 1972. We have also gone through the background in brief which ultimately led to this Agreement. Then we learned the consequences of India-Pakistan 1971 War. Finally we saw the Outcome that came out from the Agreement.