In this tutorial, I will take you through Soil and Its different types – Alluvium, Black, Red and Yellow, Laterite, Arid, Saline, Peaty and Mountain Soils. Out of all, alluvium soil is the most fertile soil located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India which covers around 15 lakh sq. km of the total area. Thus making Gangetic plain most suitable for Agriculture.
What is Soil
Soil is a mixture of mineral, organic matter, water, air and other living or dead organisms. Its ingredients vary with different geographic location. Soil is responsible for the growth of Plant and Organisms as well as for the sustained life on the planet.
Soil and Its Types: Alluvium, Black, Red and Yellow, Laterite, Arid, Forest, Saline and Peaty Soils
- These are the most fertile soil transported and deposited by Surface Water.
- Alluvium soils can easily be found in floodplain and in lower delta region.
- It consists of Silt, Clay, Sand and organic matter.
- Alluvium soil are mostly concentrated on Indo-Gangetic Plain.
- Example includes newer alluvium soil Khadar and older alluvium soil Bhangar.
- Black Soils are mostly found in the Volcanic region.
- It is also Known as Regur Soil and is very suitable for Cotton Growth.
- It has excellent water retaining capacity.
- Black soils are clayey in texture.
- In India, these soils are mainly found in the region Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Red and Yellow Soil
- It is mostly found in the warm, temperate and moist climate.
- Soil reddish color is due to iron diffusion with metamorphic rocks.
- It looks yellow when it is found in its hydrated form.
- It is mostly found in the parts of Orissa and Chhattisgarh.
- It is mostly found in hot and wet tropical regions.
- It is very rich in Iron and Aluminium contents.
- It gets its red color due to the presence of Iron Oxide.
- Laterite soil formed from weathering of rocks under intensive pressure and temperature.
- It is mostly found in the regions of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
- It is Known as the soil of Desert or Semi-Desert Regions.
- Due to lack of precipitation soil lacks humus and water contents.
- Arid soil color varies from red to brown depend on the region it is found.
- Soil texture is sandy.
- It contains high levels of gypsum, calcium carbonates and sodium.
- These soils are usually found in swampy and marshy regions.
- Saline soil does not usually support much vegetation.
- It is very rich sodium, potassium and magnesium.
- It is mostly found in coastal regions of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Tamil Nadu.
- These soil usually has very high organic matter content.
- It is highly compressible and very rich in water contents.
- It is developed over the years by the accumulation of Plant residues.
- It is almost found in all the regions but are most widespread in temperate and cold regions of Northern Hemisphere.
- It is mostly suitable for the growth of Potato, sugar beet, celery, onions, carrot etc.
- Mountain soil are found in both high elevation and in low landmass.
- As the elevation increases, soil becomes less and less fertile.
- Mountain soils are very rich in humus but deficient in potash, phosphorous and lime.
- Few of the plantations like tea and coffee are generally done on these soils.